Sample Term Paper
In the 1950s came television, which was commercialized in the United States to an exceptional degree. American advertisers had more minutes to telecast more commercial messages to more market segments (including children) than anywhere else in the world. Through television, advertisers could demonstrate the use of their product and present well-known figures to praise it. As had been the case with radio, those companies that first exploited the commercial potential of television reaped lavish rewards.
In the early days of TV advertising, ad agencies, such as Young&Rubicam, J.Walter Thompson Co., and BBDO were controlling not only TV programs but also the schedules. Network televisions such as NBC, ABC, and CBS were just technical facilities to air programs. This can be explained by the fact that network television started their businesses from the network radio whose programs were produced by advertising agencies that owned the stars, produced the shows, wrote scripts, and controlled the schedules except for news and sports at that time (McDonough 1995). The networks were little more than transmitting operators with almost no control over what was sent over the airwaves to local stations and affiliates.
In 1945, commercial TV stations were available in four cities: New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, and Schenectady in the U.S. There were fewer than 7,000 TV sets and nine stations in the U.S., due to the ban on the construction of new television and TV stations. In the same year, with TV just beginning to make an appearance, NBC radio had the most stations, the biggest stars, the largest audiences and the least incentive to change anything. ABC, which had been created from the old NBC Blue Network in1941, was the third far behind the second biggest CBS. CBS Founder William Paley had the ambition to emulate NBC in terms of its popularity in the mass market. And the key to Mr. Paley’s plan was not to be under the control of the advertising agencies (Hall). Advertisers began to change from producing the programs for TV stations to buying commercial times due to high cost involving program productions. As a result, there was 515% increase in sponsorship in 1947.
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