Essay writing on Kirkpatrick Model

What is Kirkpatrick Model?

In term of learning and development, training plays a vital part in improving the effectiveness of an individual, team, and organizations. Training, mainly focus on individual preferred outcomes and also improve them in a specified area by balancing the training cost. Training programs are highly impacted on the effect of the organization itself. According to APSC, 2005 provides an overview purposes of the training evaluation are 1) assess the training objectives are met 2) continuous improvement of learning and development 3) assess whether resources are properly used 4) assess the value for money of the learning and development. An effective training program changes the job performances and other changes (acquiring new skills) to a constructive way. However, Systematic need assessment is a crucial step in designing and developing the training program that influences the positive outcome of the training program. Read the essay on Kirkpatrick Model further to learn more details about the topic. 

Training Need Analysis (TNA)

In order to overcome these issues and to shape the organization, the Training Need Analysis (TNA) is to be considered primarily. TNA determines what the training is taught?  And how it is trained?  basically, the training objective is one of its specifications. Training Need Analysis (TNA) is conducted before the training program in order to design the goals of the program, and also considering the trainee’s preparation towards the program. However, TNA needs theoretical and empirical guidance toward the assessment. Evaluation is the main step in the training process and considered as the last stage of systematic approach where it judges the effectiveness and worthiness of the training.

Why do organizations prefer Kirkpatrick model?

Kirkpatrick model is a most popular model in an organizational training program for more than 50 years. It is 4-level model consist of reaction, learning, behavior, and results. In reaction level, the participant’s reaction is measured towards training program in order to improve the quality of the training and it is done immediately after the program through feedback. In learning the level, it considers the participants’ skills, knowledge, and attitudes gained from the training program. It measures what trainees has learned from the training program and also distinguish what they learned before and after the training program. In behavior level, it measures the participants’ job behavior or performance immediately after the training program or depending on the situation. In the result level, which measures an economic outcome of the organization from the improved performance of the trainees. It is presumed that it has a correlation between each level in the model. In previous research on Kirkpatrick model has stated that it is either individually or interconnected between two levels. For example, the trainee has an impact on training design and delivery factors. However, many researchers did not confirm the statement. There are several factors that make this model so popular.

Firstly, it ensures the need of conducting an evaluation in a systematic way. Secondly, it is straightforward and simple in assessing the outcomes of the training program. In this model, learning (level-2) and behavior (level-3) plays an important part in transfer training process that makes the training program effective. Other evaluation models evolved from Kirkpatrick model. However, this model has its own limitations in a certain aspect. Firstly, this model is extremely simple in terms of effectiveness of the program particularly on the context, as it does not focus properly. This model is not so clear in terms of the level of importance or implementation process. The model is incomplete and only focuses on the training evaluation rather than other aspects. In this model data provided in each level is more informative than the previous level.

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