Among the earliest civilizations were the different peoples living in the fertile valleys lying between the Tigris and Euphrates valley, or Mesopotamia, In the south of this region, in an area now in Kuwait and northern Saudi Arabia, a strange group of people, speaking a language unrelated to any other human language we know of, began to live in cities, which were ruled by some sort of monarch. These were the Sumerians, and around 3000 BC they began to form large city-states in southern Mesopotamia that populated areas of several hundred square miles.
Until recently, it was thought that the first cities were built by the Sumerians 5,000 years ago in the eastern segment of the Fertile Crescent – the area of the Middle East which lies between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates and which expand into known as Babylonia. In Ur, Uruk, Eridu, Lagash, Nippur and other wealthy cities of the land of Sumer, civilization was said to have begun. Before that, there was just the void of prehistory, time without a written record. That as it may, it appears that the people called Sumerians did not arrive in the region until nearly 3000 B.C.7-120
The Sumerians spoke a non-Semitic language; their origins are unidentified. And the confusion about their origin has led many researchers to point to different origins. Some say that the Sumerians were natives of Mesopotamia or believe that in fact, they had migrated from another area, however, even those who believe that they had migrated have different opinions about the areas they have migrated from. Some link them to the Indus valley civilization of Mohenjo-Daro others to the civilization in Oman and yet other link them to Egyptians.
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