The two articles, Work Motivation: The incorporation of self-concept based processes. By Leonard et al. (1999) and Self-set goals and self-efficacy as mediators of incentives and personality. By Locke (2001) are both theoretical papers, addressing the human factor or the human personality and how it is a significant element in motivation. Both works provide theoretical groundwork on which theory can be based. However, Leonard et al (1999) the concept is much broader, as for Locke has concentrated his work on the motivation Hub Model. He is concerned with the personality of the worker as a determinant for motivation and Leonard, on the other hand, provides a “Meta” theory of work motivation incorporating the self-concept. Both are significant because they add to the knowledge regarding the importance of the human character when making a decision about the motivational techniques.
Leonard (1999) believes that the existing theories and models of motivation cannot predict different behaviors in the organization, and it is very difficult to categorize people. His analysis is on an individual level. He then goes on to review already existing theories concerning motivation. Then he discusses the subject of self-concept. The perceptions of people are based on traits, competencies, and values. In addition, one’s self-concept is based on three self-perceptions, the perceived self the ideal self and social identity. As the self-concept develops, the individuals are more motivated. This research lets the managers understand the deviation of behavior in the working environment.
For future research self-esteem can be incorporated into the study, in addition, motivational consequences need to be further evaluated. It can also be applied for work motivation.
Locke, on the other hand, discusses Self-Efficacy and personal goal settings are very crucial determinants of motivation. Self-efficacy and self-set goals are again dependent on other variables like values, in the Hub model. The values are internal incentives, whereas other factors are external incentives.
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