Dr. Jim Cummins is a professor at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto. He has involved language development and literacy development for those who learn English as a second language he has come up with two processes which help teachers to assess a child’s language ability. Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills is the communicative fluency which is learned by children in their native language. This is used in informal setting and is not something which needs much effort. According to him and his colleague, it takes about one to three years to develop BICS if they are exposed to the second language. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency or CALP is the skill to manipulating a language using abstractions in a sophisticated manner. This method is used in an academic setting. This is much different then BICS it takes five to seven years to acquire.
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